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Friday, December 21, 2012

Cerebral Resuscitation After Cardiocirculatory Arrest


Neuronal injury is one of the key factors in determining outcome after cardiac arrest. Cerebral resuscitation starts with rapid restoration of spontaneous circulation by immediate CPR and defibrillation and continues in the postresuscitation period. Basic measures consist of good critical care practice, such as maintaining normotension, normoglycemia, and normocapnia. In addition, several more specific postresuscitation treatment options have been explored in recent years. All therapies for cerebral resuscitation must face the challenge presented by the complex pathophysiological network, which is activated by global ischemia. An effective therapy should act on multiple pathways simultaneously. This is what therapeutic hypothermia does. Two large randomized clinical trials have proven that mild therapeutic hypothermia is effective in improving both survival and neurological outcome of patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mild therapeutic hypothermia of 32°C–34°C for 12–24 h is, therefore, clearly recommended by the 2005 international guidelines on CPR. Other cerebral resuscitation approaches are currently being investigated experimentally and/or clinically. Thrombolytic therapy, specific infusion regimens, or antiapoptotic drugs might perhaps complement mild therapeutic hypothermia in the future.

Andreas Schneider, MD*, Bernd W. Böttiger, MD* and Erik Popp, MD†

- Author Affiliations

From the *Department of Anesthesiology and Postoperative Intensive Care Medicine, University of Cologne, Germany; and †Department of Anesthesiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Andreas Schneider, Department of Anesthesiology and Postoperative Intensive Care Medicine, University of Cologne, Kerpener Straße 62, 50937 Köln, Germany. Address e-mail to

Next SectionAbstract

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can restore spontaneous circulation in up to 50% of patients suffering from cardiac arrest. However, most of these patients still die during the postresuscitation period. Mortality is largely due to neuronal injury after global cerebral ischemia. There is, therefore, a clear need for therapies, which restore and protect brain function after cardiac arrest. Several years ago, mild therapeutic hypothermia was introduced into clinical practice. It represents the first treatment to improve both survival and neurological outcome of patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, according to randomized clinical trials. In addition to therapeutic hypothermia, various other therapeutic options are currently being investigated experimentally and/or clinically. These include thrombolytic therapy, specific infusion regimens, or antiapoptotic drugs. In this article, we review both the pathophysiological background and the efficacy of different measures that might be useful for cerebral resuscitation.

Previous SectionNext SectionCardiac arrest occurs frequently and is still often fatal. Nationwide registries are presently being installed1,2; however, data extrapolated from single studies suggest that resuscitation is attempted in about 500,000 individuals each year in North America and in the same number in the European Union.3–5 Spontaneous circulation can be restored in 20%–50% of these patients3,4 (Fig. 1). Unfortunately, although, many of these patients still die during the postresuscitation period. Two percent to 15% of patients who are resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are discharged alive from the hospital. Most deaths during the postresuscitation period can be attributed to neuronal damage, which develops as a consequence of global cerebral ischemia during cardiac arrest.6 Furthermore, 40%–50% of surviving patients suffer from permanent impairment of cognitive functions, such as memory, attention, and executive functioning.7,8

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Download as PowerPoint SlideFigure 1. Outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The study included 338 patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac etiology. ROSC = restoration of spontaneous circulation.3

Multistage algorithms have been developed for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); however, when it comes to cerebral resuscitation, i.e., restoring and protecting brain function after cardiac arrest, our possibilities are still limited. The purpose of this article is to review different approaches to cerebral resuscitation. These include not only mild therapeutic hypothermia, which is the current clinical standard, but also various experimental methods which might find their way to the clinic in the future.


Cascades of Death

Cardiac arrest is a state of global ischemia and the brain is extremely susceptible to this condition. Only 5–6 s after the onset of circulatory arrest, the patient loses consciousness.9 Without a supply of blood, cerebral tissue oxygen tension declines continuously reaching 0 after about 2 min.10 Simultaneously, neuronal energy in terms of adenosine triphosphate is depleted and metabolites, such as adenosine, lactate, and hydrogen ions, accumulate in the cells.11,12 Dysfunction of the cell membrane ion pumps leads to a severe breakdown in cellular homeostasis. One particular consequence is a massive accumulation of calcium in the cell cytosol when calcium efflux pumps fail, voltage-gated calcium channels open, and ligand-gated channels are activated by released excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate and aspartate.13,14 This calcium overload is considered a key factor in cellular toxicity.15

If the ischemia persists long enough, neuronal necrosis ultimately ensues throughout the brain.16 However, neuronal energy is recovered rapidly upon reperfusion because of CPR and return of spontaneous circulation.11,12 Therefore, reperfusion does stop neuronal degeneration to a certain degree; yet it does not necessarily completely restore function. During reperfusion, free radicals form when the oxygen supply is restored, which might even aggravate cellular damage.17 The main characteristic of the reperfusion period is that refueling adenosine triphosphate gives the cell the opportunity to actively react to the damage. This is associated with the expression of immediate early genes, a complex machinery involving both cell survival and cell death cascades.18–21 The morphological correlate of “subnecrotic” cellular damage is delayed neuronal death, which shows typical signs of apoptosis and occurs mainly in so-called selectively vulnerable brain areas such as the CA-1 sector of the hippocampus, the nucleus reticularis thalami or distinct layers of the cortex18–20 (Fig. 2).

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Download as PowerPoint SlideFigure 2. Selectively vulnerable areas of the rat brain. Neuronal degeneration after cardiac arrest is seen particularly in the CA-1 sector of the hippocampus, the nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT), the putamen, and distinct layers of the cortex. Neurons of the hippocampus are visualized by Nissl staining. The black arrow indicates the border between degenerated neurons in the CA-1 sector (red arrows) and the adjacent, less vulnerable CA-2 sector.128

Cerebral Circulation Disorders

Return of cardiac function does not automatically restore normal cerebral circulation. Depending on the duration of the ischemic period, cerebral vessel dysfunction develops, which likely contributes to neuronal damage. Experimentally, different phenomena can be distinguished. First, reperfusion fails completely in circumscribed areas of the brain (no-reflow phenomenon).22–24 These areas increase with the duration of ischemia.22,24 No-reflow is probably caused by capillary congestion because of edema of endothelium and perivascular glia,25 blood cell sludging,26,27 leukocyte adhesion,25,28 and disseminated intravascular coagulation.26,29–31

Local no-reflow is paralleled by global cerebral hyperemia during the early period of reperfusion.32,33 This is probably caused by the accumulation of metabolites such as adenosine, lactate, or hydrogen ions during ischemia,12 which are potent vasodilators. However, within the first hour after reperfusion, reactive hyperermia is followed by a global reduction in cerebral blood flow (delayed hypoperfusion).32–34 This phenomenon is probably caused by cerebral vasospasms because of dysfunctional nitric oxide and endothelin metabolism.35–37

Systemic Sequelae

In addition to primarily cerebral injury, ischemic damage also occurs, of course, in other vital organs, leading to so-called postresuscitation disease.38 Typically, myocardial function is markedly reduced after circulation is restored.39–41 Both systolic contractility and diastolic relaxation are impaired, leading to pronounced hemodynamic instability. The underlying pathophysiology of this myocardial stunning is often complex. Like the brain, the myocardium is particularly susceptible to the state of global ischemia.42 Additionally, as the cause of cardiac arrest is often of cardiac origin (e.g., 50%–70% of patients have myocardial infarction), this exacerbates the damage to the heart.40 Even therapeutic interventions during CPR could cause further damage to the heart, namely, electrical defibrillation43 and administration of epinephrine.44

Cardiac arrest induces systemic inflammation, whereby leukocytes and complement are activated and levels of cytokines increased.45,46 Furthermore, coagulatory cascades are activated immediately but without concomitant stimulation of endogenous fibrinolysis.29,47

Pathological changes in the different organ systems can further affect one another. Activation of coagulation contributes to cerebral no-reflow.26,29–31 Systemic inflammation impairs myocardial function.48 Hemodynamic instability worsens cerebral perfusion, because autoregulation of the cerebral vessels is often defective after cardiac arrest.49 Moreover, and irrespective of all the specific interactions, the simple truth is that the brain will only survive if the rest of the body does.

Previous SectionNext SectionBASIC THERAPEUTIC GOALS

After ischemia the brain is highly susceptible to disturbances in general physiological homeostasis.49–51 The first goal of all therapeutic measures should be to establish an optimal environment for cerebral recovery. The international guidelines on CPR recommend maintaining normotension, normoglycemia, and normocapnia.52,53 However, “normal” target values originate from healthy individuals. We do not entirely know whether they are always ideal for the injured brain too, or whether we must do even better.

Concerning arterial blood pressure, animal experimental data suggest that increasing blood pressure might improve outcome.54 This might be due to impaired cerebral autoregulation after ischemia.49 However, no data in this regard are available from clinical studies.

Concerning blood glucose levels, van den Berghe et al.55 showed that tight glucose control (80–110 mg/dL vs 180–200 mg/dL) improved outcome in the critical care setting. However, recent studies focusing on patients after cardiac arrest suggest that only slightly elevated blood glucose (<150 associated="associated" be="be" control="control" could="could" dl="dl" during="during" glucose="glucose" hypoglycemia="hypoglycemia" impair="impair" insulin="insulin" is="is" it="it" mg="mg" might="might" not="not" of="of" outcome.56="outcome.56" outcome="outcome" periods="periods" possible="possible" recognized.="recognized." that="that" tight="tight" with="with" worsened="worsened">


Hypothermia has been used therapeutically in cardiac and neurosurgery for more than 50 yr to protect the brain from ischemia. The first reports of postischemic therapeutic hypothermia were published in the late 1950s.58–60 Systematic investigations were initiated in the late 1980s and have produced a vast amount of both experimental and clinical data showing beneficial effects of mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest.61–71 Evidence is provided in particular by two major randomized clinical trials that were published in 2002.61,68 Both studies investigated mild therapeutic hypothermia in comatose adult patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest because of ventricular fibrillation.

The European multicenter trial conducted by the Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest study group included 275 patients, of whom 137 were cooled to 32°C–34°C for 24 h while body temperature in the control group was not decreased.68 Regarding outcome at 6 mo, mortality was reduced by 26% (41% vs 55%, P = 0.02) and the portion of patients with favorable neurological outcome increased by 40% (55% vs 39%, P = 0.09) (Fig. 3).

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Download as PowerPoint SlideFigure 3. Mild therapeutic hypothermia and outcome after cardiac arrest. The study included 275 patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest because of ventricular fibrillation. Patients in the hypothermia group were cooled to 32°C–34°C for 24 h.68

The Australian trial by Bernard et al.61 covered 77 patients; hypothermia of 33°C for 12 h was applied in 43 patients. At hospital discharge, the likelihood for good neurological outcome was 85% higher in the hypothermic group (49% vs 26%, P = 0.046).

In a subsequent individual patient data meta-analysis, Holzer et al.72 calculated the number-needed-to-treat to allow one additional patient to leave the hospital with no or only minimal neurological damage to be six. As a consequence, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation recommended in 2003 that mild therapeutic hypothermia be used in comatose adult patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest because of ventricular fibrillation.73 This recommendation was implemented into the revised international guidelines on CPR in 200552,53 (Table 1). In fact, mild therapeutic hypothermia currently represents the only measure which has proven efficacy in cerebral resuscitation. However, it is still underused in many hospitals.74,75

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In this windowIn a new windowTable 1. Indications for Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia53

A variety of physiological effects that are exerted by mild therapeutic hypothermia underlie the efficacy of this therapy. Hypothermia reduces metabolism, and thus cerebral oxygen demands.76 There is a decrease in reactive oxygen species77 and excitatory amino acids78,79 during hypothermia as well as direct inhibition of apoptosis.80 Furthermore, inhibition of coagulation cascades81 and inflammatory reactions82 might improve cerebral reperfusion. Finally, hypothermia alters gene expression in a complex manner, e.g., by enhancing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)83 or the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2,84 whereas suppressing the proapoptotic protein Bax84 or matrix metalloproteinase-9.85 Mild therapeutic hypothermia, therefore, acts broadly on different sequelae of cardiac arrest at the same time, which makes it the current clinical standard in cerebral resuscitation.

Hypothermia can be induced by different methods, e.g., surface cooling, ice-cold infusions or endovascular cooling catheters. Although there are great differences in efficacy and invasiveness among them, it is currently not clear whether one particular technique should be preferred to the others. No studies are available that have compared different cooling devices with respect to “hard” clinical end points, i.e., mortality and morbidity.

However, it is commonly accepted and recommended by the guidelines that hypothermia should be initiated with minimal delay after cardiac arrest.52,53 Surface cooling or ice-cold infusions can be used preclinically. Kim et al.86 conducted a randomized clinical trial in which patients were assigned to either receiving 4°C normal saline or not in the out-of-hospital setting. After arrival at the hospital, patients were treated according to the local preferences, i.e., patients were cooled or not regardless of the randomization. Survival rates tended to be higher in patients who had received out-of-hospital cooling treatment.

Possible adverse effects of hypothermia include electrolyte and intravascular volume changes, impaired immune defense and impaired coagulation. However, these complications can usually be managed by intensive care strategies. The two large randomized clinical trials did not find a significant increase in severe complications when compared with normothermia.61,68 The safety of hypothermia treatment has also been confirmed by newer observational studies.87

Therapeutic hypothermia continues to be one of the most important topics in clinical resuscitation research today. Questions that still need to be addressed include establishing the indications for therapeutic hypothermia (intrahospital cardiac arrest and treatment in children) and cooling characteristics (target temperature, cooling rate, and duration of hypothermia) and cooling methods (external or internal). Several current clinical trials are focusing on these issues. To name only two, a trial in Germany is investigating therapeutic hypothermia in in-hospital cardiac arrest (n = 440),88 whereas a trial being conducted in France is comparing endovascular and surface cooling in a randomized fashion (n = 400).89



There are two underlying rationales for using thrombolytics during CPR. First, cardiac arrest is caused by acute myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolism in 50%–70% of patients.90–92 In these two situations, thrombolysis represents a causal and standard therapy. Second, there is evidence that coagulation disorders are involved in the no-reflow phenomenon, and thus in impaired cerebral circulation after cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest leads to activation of coagulation without adequate fibrinolysis.29,47 Microscopic examination of cerebral vessels shows that multiple microemboli develop during cardiac arrest and resuscitation.26 Although this was not known in detail in the 1950s, Crowell et al.30,93 had already shown at that time that pretreatment with heparin or streptokinase improved survival in dogs after cardiac arrest. Then, 40 yr later, Fischer et al.31 demonstrated a strong reduction in cerebral no-reflow in cats by postarrest thrombolytic treatment with plasminogen activator and heparin.

Clinical investigations have been less conclusive thus far. Several small studies suggest that thrombolysis during CPR might be beneficial, particularly in patients with pulmonary embolism, but also in those who suffer myocardial infarction.94–97 Randomized clinical trials investigating a general use of thrombolytics during CPR have produced differing results. Whereas Fatovich et al. found an increase in resuscitability (35 patients randomized), Abu-Laban et al. did not find any benefits from thrombolytics (233 patients randomized).98,99 The largest amount of data are provided by the European multicenter Thrombolysis in Cardiac Arrest trial.100 After inclusion of 1050 patients, the study was prematurely halted, because preliminary findings indicated that there was no likely benefit of thrombolytic therapy over placebo. Further analyses are expected soon. Nevertheless, all studies have consistently shown that thrombolysis during CPR is largely safe and not associated with increased bleeding complications.98,99

Thrombolytic therapy during CPR was included in international CPR guidelines in 2005 but only when pulmonary embolism52,53 or myocardial infarction53 is suspected.

Hypertonic, Hyperoncotic Infusions

A different approach to promoting microcirculation is the use of special infusion regimens which improve the rheological characteristics of the blood. After initial experiments with dextran 40 or isotonic saline,101,102 current research is focusing on hypertonic-hyperoncotic NaCl/hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions. Several animal studies have shown that hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions given during CPR, or immediately after restoration of spontaneous circulation, decrease cerebral no-reflow.31,103,104 Some studies also investigated markers of neuronal damage. Krieter et al.105 found a decrease in release of astroglial protein S-100 after cardiac arrest in pigs after therapy with hypertonic-hyperoncotic infusion. Noppens et al.104 found improvements in both neurological deficit scores and brain histology in rats. Besides having positive effects on cerebral microcirculation, hypertonic saline also seems to ameliorate cardiac function during and after CPR.105–107

Up to now, one clinical trial has been published on the effect of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions in CPR.108 Bender et al. randomized 66 patients who suffered out-of-hospital cardiac arrest into two groups. The patients received 2 mL · kg−1 · 10 min−1 of either hypertonic saline with HES (7.2% NaCl with 6% HES 200,000/0.5) or HES alone during continuous CPR. Resuscitation success tended to be higher in patients receiving hypertonic saline with HES (66.7% vs 51.5%, P = 0.21) and hospital admission rates were also increased (57.6% vs 39.4%, P = 0.14). There were no severe side effects of hypertonic saline. However, larger clinical trials are needed to further elucidate the short- and long-term effects of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions after cardiac arrest.

Although hypertonic-hyperoncotic infusions hold potential for clinical use, hypothermia and thrombolysis already represent, at least in part, clinical routine for resuscitation. Thus, it would seem logical to combine these different approaches. However, each combination must first be carefully evaluated and experimental studies are still sparse. Lin et al.109 showed that dextran 40 and streptokinase synergistically improved cerebral recovery in dogs with cardiac arrest as measured by electroencephalogram activity. Safar et al.110 combined dextran 40 with hypothermia and arterial hypertension in dogs with cardiac arrest. This combination produced the best functional and histological outcome these investigators had ever experienced in that particular model in 15 yr of research, including experiments in which the animals had received dextran, hypothermia, or hypertension alone. Although there is still a long road ahead, these experiments suggest that the future might lie in combined therapies.

Previous SectionNext SectionINFLUENCING APOPTOSIS

Inhibitors of Apoptosis

It has been suggested that delayed neuronal death after cardiac arrest is caused by apoptosis.18,19 Apoptosis is characterized by activation of proteolytic cascades, which ultimately result in degradation of cellular components. The proteolytic enzyme, caspase 3, is one of the key executioners of apoptosis. Therefore, it seemed reasonable that neuronal damage after cardiac arrest could be ameliorated by inhibiting caspase 3.

This question was first addressed by Chen et al.19 In a rat model of global cerebral ischemia produced by four-vessel occlusion, they investigated the effects of the caspase 3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK. After 7 days of reperfusion, they found an increased number of surviving cells in the selectively vulnerable CA-1 sector of the hippocampus along with a decrease in apoptotic cells in CA-1. However, other groups failed to reproduce neuroprotective effects of this or other caspase inhibitors in experimental global cerebral ischemia or cardiac arrest.111–113

It is now thought that the pathophysiology of neuronal degeneration is too complex to be reduced to only one molecule. There are probably various other “key” effectors independent of the caspases. One particular target is the calpain proteolytic system.114,115 It has been shown that inhibiting both calpains and caspases produces a synergistic effect in preventing neuronal damage after global cerebral ischemia.115 However, inhibition of apoptotic cascades is still a highly experimental endeavor. Additional studies are required to further elucidate the therapeutic effects of specific interventions.

Growth Factors

Apoptotic cell death is highly regulated. Physiologically, a variety of apoptosis-inducing factors are counterbalanced by different antiapoptotic, i.e., survival, factors. In pathological settings such as cerebral ischemia, apoptosis is induced by a massive release of death signals such as that from mitochondrial cytochrome c.116 Theoretically, if it were possible to amplify survival factors in the same way, cell death should be prevented. Such an approach might be initiated by administering growth factors, which have antiapoptotic properties. Interestingly, endogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) and BDNF are upregulated in neurons after cerebral ischemia20; the expression of BDNF is even enhanced by therapeutic hypothermia.83 Administration of exogenous growth factors after cerebral ischemia has produced inconclusive results.

One of the first such studies was conducted by Shigeno et al.117 They gave NGF or vehicle intracerebroventricularly before and after induction of global cerebral ischemia in gerbils (four-vessel occlusion). After 1 wk of reperfusion, a significant reduction in neuronal cell death was observed in CA-1 in both NGF pre- and posttreatment groups. However, subsequent work suggested that this treatment effect was transient and diminished after 4 wk, leading to the same degree of neuronal degeneration in NGF- and vehicle-treated animals.118

Kiprianova et al.119 investigated postischemic intracerebroventricular infusion of BDNF in rats with global cerebral ischemia (four-vessel occlusion). This treatment regimen completely prevented neuronal death in CA-1 after 7 days of reperfusion. In contrast, Popp et al.120 failed to show any beneficial effects of BDNF after cardiac arrest in rats.

Similarly conflicting results have been reported for other growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor I,121,122 granulocyte colony-stimulating factor123,124 or erythropoietin.125–127 Although some groups demonstrated positive effects of these growth factors,122,123,125 others failed to show any benefit for outcome.121,124,126 In conclusion, it is still not known whether any growth factor is capable of improving outcome after cardiac arrest.

It is certainly too simple to assume that it does not matter whether we reduce cellular death cascades (selectively, for example, with caspase inhibitors or in a much broader way with hypothermia) or activate cellular protection (e.g., with growth factors). Cells in a state of reduced energy and substrate levels might fail to respond to stimulation by growth factors. “Stepping on the gas” under such circumstances might perhaps even accelerate degeneration.

Update in Cerebral Resuscitation   Brain edema is an excess accumulation of water in the intracellular and/or extracellular spaces of the brain and can be divided into vasogenic and cytotoxic

Vasogenic brain edema is caused by disruption of the blood brain barrier

Meanwhile, Cytotoxic edema is characterized by accumulation of water inside the neurons, microglia and astrocytes

Goal of medical management for cerebral edema is to maintain regional and global cerebral blood flow to meet the metabolic requirement and prevent secondary neuronal injury from cerebral ischemia

1) Elevation of head end of bed 15-30 degrees promote cerebral venous drainage. Head is kept in midline to limit neck vein compression. Bed is not tilted in acute carotid or basilar artery occlusion to avoid hypo perfusion distal to occlusion

2) Close monitoring of BP is important sign for increase in ICP (Cushing effect)

3) Surgical decompression and use of osmotherapy to reduce brain edema and its deleterious effect remain the mainstay of treatment even today

4) Mannitol remains as the best choice osmotic agent for osmotherapy. it decrease brain volume by decreasing overall water content, reduce blood volume by vasoconstriction, reduce CSF volume, improve cerebral perfusion by decreasing viscosity or altering red blood cell rheology and exert a protective effect against biochemical injury

5) Loop diuretic, IV Furosemide 0.7 mg/kg can be add to prolong osmotic effect

6) Hypertonic saline is about as effective as mannitol (certainly not more) and is safe and effective alternative to mannitol.

7) Prophylactic and prolonged hyperventilation maneuvers are not recommended during the first 24 hours because CBF is reduced at this time after trauma

8) Prolonged pulmonary hyperventilation must be avoided in the absence of high ICP as sustains vasoconstriction reduces CBF to deleterious levels and could generate brain ischemia

9) There is worse prognosis in severe TBI, routinely treated with hyperventilation

10) Hyperventilation becomes appropriate in the treatment of difficult to control ICH, CBF at normal level or high at onset of ICH and when brain deterioration with suspicion of intracranial mass lesion has occurred

11) Fluid restriction minimally affects cerebral edema and, if pursued to excess, may result in episodes of hypotension, which may increase ICP and is associated with worse neurologic outcome

12) Glucose containing solutions should be avoided

13) Glycerol can be given 30 ml every 4-6 hour or daily IV 50g in 500 ml of 2.5% saline solution

14) Corticosteroid is less effective in cytotoxic edema, and is not recommended in treatment of edema secondary to stroke or hemorrhage. Besides, systemic complications of steroids can worsen the patient’s condition

15) Inj. Dexamethasone 4-6 mg IM every 4-6 hours may be used if there is documented evidence of cerebral vasculitis, acute bacterial meningitis and chronic meningitis

16) Glucocorticoid are used for the management of malignant brain tumors exert their influence on brain tumors mainly by reducing tumor-associated vasogenic edema, probably by decreasing the increased capillary permeability of blood brain barrier

17) Randomized clinical trials are in progress to establish the safety and efficacy of prolonged cerebral hypothermia.

18) Barbiturates, Procaine derivatives, Indomethacin, Propofol and THAM (Thrometamine) are not being used routinely in present practice

19) EEG is not very helpful in the management of cerebral edema

Disclaimers: This writing is not fully from the author. Some of them are just straightly copy-paste from original articles. Therefore, authors are not responsible for any accusation of plagiarism.


1) Abhishek Patro & Sureswar Mohanty, "Pathophysiology and treatment of traumatic brain edema, Indian Journal of Neurotrauma", Vol 6, No 1,2009.

2) Bhavneet Bharti, "Hypertonic Saline Treatment in Cerebral Edema –Is the Evidence Sufficient?", Indian Pediatrics, Vol 45, June 17, 2008

3) Matheus Oliveira-Abreu & Lajana de Almeida, 'Management of mechanical ventilation in brain injury: hyperventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure", Rev Bras Ter Intensiva, 21(1):72-79, 2009

4) SK Jha Lt Col (Retd), "Cerebral Edema and its Management", MJAFI 2003; 59 : 326-331

Tuesday, August 7, 2012

kamus sleng Perak ^^

kawan2 yg cube mahu memahmi sleng perak mari le membce....idok le tesalah makne dah terase ati bile berbicare......keh4...... ( actly ni dari abg saya , koi xtaw la la betoi ker idok ejaannya , mintak halal-beralal la ek ^_^, peace yaw )

keme/aye/saye/teman/awak/kume = saya
(name teman peon...)

mike/kome/kamu/ = awak
(kome udah makan??)

ate = abis tu
(ate.. kome tak reti-reti nak mandi ke??)

raban teben =tak tentu arah
(ape kene raban teben budak ni??)

angat pijo = panas
(mak oii.. angat pijo rase badan..)

hakap = tamak
(gile hakap budak nie makan..sampai 4 ketui ayam dalam pinggan..)

ngelewor = terumbang ambing kekiri kekanan..
(ate ape kene bawak moto mengelewor ni??)

kebulor = lapar
(makk... adik tak larat nak puase.. dah kebulo bebeno dah ni...)

bolen = telanjang bulat
(ate abang ace pakaikan seluor anak tu jap.. apekehai keluor romah bolen aje..)

nyelap sador = seorang yang seperti dirasuk@ diluar kawalan
(tgk tu, pantang sebut hal kawen.. nyelap sador die..)

mengelenyor = gatal/ menengada/ sopannya
(yang nie lagi sorang... jumpe muke hensem siket mule le mengelenyor.)

biot = degil
(kome jangan biot beno pun kenape.. kang apak rotan kang..)

perok = jakun/ tak pernah tgk benda
(ate... tak usah le perok bebenor.. esok kite pun beli rope itu)

muncah = banyak duit atau berharta
(auuww.. moncah le mike.. anak2 sume kroje gomen..)

toben = tua bangka
(tok tu dah toben... renti kan le kluor.. dudok romah je..)

merambu = joli sana sini

KEMIN = kemas

NYEGHOGIN = tersenyum sorang diri

REBEN TEYBEN = seluin jer – selekeh

TAK AJAP = TAK layan/ tak jadi hal


menterchiker = makan

MEROLOH = Tidor.
(adi tgh meroloh...)

GHODI/KODI = repair/belek
(haaa.. yai gitu.. ghodi-ghodi kerete abah tu.. kang kena penampor ngan dia..)

YA’NGAT = minuman panas (tea, kopi, melo, neskepe dll)

CIK CIBOR = pepatung
(cik cibor boleh makan ke???)

KALA LIPIT = kala jengkin (scorpions)
(tangan aku bengkak kene kala lipit)

CENCOGHOT = tikuih ketughi

JELEBOR = labi²
(nak tgk jelebor datang le bote..)

LABUN = cakap

SEMUT GATEY = semut api
(uwwaaa... adik kene gigit semut gatey)

MENGKIOK = besar sikit dari anai2 selalunya menjadi kalkatu..

BEDAGHOH = berdarah

CENANGOR = serangga yg berbau busuk selalu dijumpai berhampiran dgn lampu
(oiii bebudak cinangor.. gie balik..)

MENTONG = makan sampai due kali atau tambah 2 kali

PAKA@ PAKEI = pakai atau guna
(elehh... henset nokia n95 teman dah lame pakei..)

LECAH = Lumpur
(ya Allah budak nie, yang kamu main lecah kenape?? kan dah koto baju kamu..)

NGETIT /ngokak = gigit ketip

CONONGGENG = bontot ayam

ENCONOT = atau tongken ayam

LIBANG LIBU = perasaan resah gelisah....

MEGHEDANG-GHEDANG = (meredang-redang) maksud dia membuta-tuli

SENTEN = menarik kaki seluar ke atas.....ataupun singkat dlm bahasa pekan nya

SIUT = cucuh / menyalakan

NYARIGH = mujor
(nyarigh lagik aku tak eksiden tadik.. kalo tak beterabor gigi..)

BENGKIN = garang
(ate abahnye pon.. ngan anak pun nak bengkin)

GETAK =jatuh / luruh


MENTELUN = seluar panjang (pantaloon)

KAYU ROL = kayu pembaris

PORES = pekerja jabatan hutan tu, forest

PUIH OPES = pejabat pos

GOMEN = kerajaan

MENTOKA = Kereta

SELAIT = lampu suluh / torch light

SEPEROH = alas / lapik meja

JEGHOLONG = tempat buang sampah kat tepi hutan

PIOR = tulin asli

ACEKEME = macamana kalau

PENGGE = lontar, baling

HAMBAT = kejar

GHULU GHELO = hulu hilir

NGELAT = menipu

SELE’WIN = kira buat asal siap, comot

HINCIT = Ketepi, ngeysot

GETIK = nyampoh (menyampah)

GANJEI = terkena / naya / terkejut

REBER = sesak, beriya, sopannya, poyo..

SA-NGEIYR atau SANGEI = tudung saji

SI-YAR* (sengorkan bunyi..yar.. tu..) = mangguk tingkat

MENYENGKET - mengintai, mengendap

GILA SEPEREGHE = separuh gile

BEBEY = degil tahap batu gajah

NIN = jernih...

GENYII = geli geleman

MENYELEBIUR= terjuih bibir

NYADIN = buat derk aje

MELENGKO = membelit (ater komer lekas nengok ulor beso melengko ataih pago rumoh pak bako.)

MENEBEN MUKE = melangok kat kedai kopi

TAK SIOR = tak ingin

BERDANO = kotor sangat

NYENDIN = tumpang sekaki

SEMBAI = pasir halus yang basah/pasir sungai (cher miker pegi kaup sembai kat sungei tu, elok bebeno mbuat
bancuh simen)

LIMBAH = air kotor/Lumpur

MENGEROGHNYOT = berdenyut-denyut

MEMBANGAO BAU = busuk baunya

BERDA'AH = bohong/menipu/kelentong

TERPEROGHONGO = berlubang besar

PETIA = memang sudah direnung/ memang yakin

NYIOR KUTEY = kelapa yang dah kering kat atas pokok kelapa

BERONGGOK = berkumpul

TAWO LEYSYUR = masakan terlalu tawar

JENUH = lama sangat..

BONYEH = berlendir/berlendior

MELANTUNG KOHONG = busuk sesangat

Tumpo =Tak bergerak,mati,habis nyawa.

Moh = Jom

Ngerengken = Kurus kering tak ada isi langsung

Sompeh = Serpih,picisan,ada cacat sikit.

SAMO = Merah Jambu

SOH = Sunyi sepi/ senyap

PAN/NYANG =Panggilan utk moyang

BESIT = Memukul dgn sesuatu spt rotan dan sbg

NGELATOK = Berdebar2 akibat terkejut

motokar = kereta

mutu = motorsikal

tak mandang = takde

gebor = selimut

limaih = tepung pelita

ce /ace = cuba /try

gostan = undur belakang

beransor = mintak diri

Friday, August 3, 2012

Midnight Sun


I could still feel Bella's warmth in the car, though I'd already put miles between us. I drove quickly towards home to make my nightly appearance, knowing that soon I would leave again, to take solace in Bella's dreams. Although a part of me still felt voyeuristic, the quiet comfort I had found in watching her sleep, hearing her whisper my name, was not something I could easily give up .As soon as I walked into the house, I heard chattering in the living room. My family was arguing, and yet again I found myself the center of their attention. Of course they all knew of my plans to spend the day with Bella on Saturday, and were currently in loud dispute over whether or not such a thing should be allowed. 

~ to be continued ;Edward’s point of view ~

Thursday, August 2, 2012


bulan puasa datang lagi ...

haha ... da lama tak jenguk blog ni ^_^ 

so ... untuk entry kali ni , apa agaknya elisa nak celotehkan yer ... hmmm

  • cosmetic ?
  • photography ?
  • anatomy and science again ?
  • recipies ? haha ... seems synonym with ramadhan :D

tanak .. tanak .. tanak 

memandangkan sekarang as officially penganggur .., hihi , memang byk buang masa kat rumah ni :) teruk kan ... haha

tapi bila da menjelang ramadhan , byk yg perlu di topup , yg menarik tertarik .. carik2 lagi di sini ,

elisa nak share sikit dr sebahagian pembacaan dr buku fikah harian by Dato' Dr Haron Din 

dlm menjawab persoalan mengenai LAILATULQADAR . jom :)

Apakah yang dimaksudkan malam AL-QADAR ( Lailatul-qadar) ?

malam al-qadar adalah satu malam dlm bln Ramadhan yg ditentukan di mana Allah shj yg mengetahuimya. Malam itu yg mempunyai pelbagai kelebihan dan keistimewaan yg melebihi 1000 bulan. Ini ditegaskan Allah di dalam surah al-Qadr, ayat 1 hingga 3 , yg bermaksud :
kami turunkan Quran pada malam al-Qadar . Tahukah kamu apakah malam al-Qadar itu lebih baik dr seribu bulan .

Apakah tanda-tanda yang menunjukkan berlakunya malam al-Qadar ?

antara tanda2nya adalah malam itu jelas dan tenang , udaranya tidak panas dan tidak pula dingin , keesokkan harinya kelihatan sinaran matahari tidak bercahaya . Ada juga pendapat mengatakan pd malam al-Qadar itu tidak akan kelihatan bayang-bayang. 

jadi suka saya nak tegaskan di sini , dalam pada kita  mengerjakan ibadah puasa , marilah kita merebut peluang keemasan ini dgn memperbanyakkan amalan ibadah yang lain . moga dengan rahmatNya kita beroleh hati yang baru , suatu ilmu malah sebuah kehidupan yang lebih bermakna :) 

~selamat beramal~

Friday, June 15, 2012

Resipi Seribu Satu

ayam masak halia.puan2 mesti tahu masak ni kan tapi admin saje jew letak resepinya kat cni ye.
1keping dada ayam
1/2 bj bawang merah*
4 ulsa bawang putih*
halia 3 inci dihiris halus2...
cili padi sedikit.kalo nak pedas boleh tambah ye..*
2sdb sos tiram.
air sedikit
bawang besar
daun bawang
daun sup
tumbuk bahan2 yg bertanda.selepas tu tumis ye hingga naik bau..dah tu masukkan dada ayam tadi...gaul seketika dan masukkan sedikit air.tutup kuali dan biarkan dalam beberapa minit tuk bg masak ayam tu.bila dah ok bolehlah masukkan sos tiram,garam n ajinamoto.gaul selepas tu bolehlah masukkan bahan hiasan.bawang besar,daun sup dan daun bawang sedikit.siap.boleh makan...masakan yg simple tapi sedap....

recipe dari fren FB.tqvm pd PN Rita Norlitah Hashral krn share dis's so simple & mmg sesuai utk pn2 yg bekerja dan x suka spend bnyk masa kat kitchen




Joha Hassan
Resepi Ayam Panggang - Lemak Manis.

1 whole Chicken cut in halves.
15 - 20 shallots (Blend)
4 Red Chillies (Blend)
4 pcs Kafir Lime leaves (Daun Limau perut)
...4 candle nuts
200gm Coconut Milk
2 cm Galangal (Lengkuas)(Blend)
2 cm Fresh Tumeric (Blend)
3 pcs Lemon grass (Serai)
3 pcs of screwpine leaves (Pandan Leaves)
Salt & Sugar for taste
4 tbspn of Vegetable Oil

Blend all the spices above
Heat the oil, add lemon grass and pandan leaves
Add the spices and cooked till the aroma rises
Add the chicken, cook for 15/20 mins on medium heat
add the coconut milk and cook for another 10mins
Take the chicken out and place on baking tray.
Grilled chicken for 20 to 25 mins in the oven @180C
or grilled on charcoal.
Garnish with coriander leaves and fresh salad.
For Best result, grill on BBQ charcoal.

Joha Hassan BBQ, saya selalu gunakan serbuk ketumbar, kunyit, jintan, halia & bawang putih, cili boh.garam & gula peramkan 2jam. Gaulkan dengan minyak sedikit..Kalau seafood kunyit, cili paste, garam & gula.

Fan photos from Kongsi Resepi

Ayam masak USEK.......resipi mak mentua mlong (org jawa)

1 ekor ayam . potong 12...goreng separuh masak dulu

2 biji kentang belah 4
2 biji tomato belah 4
2 tangkai cili merah belah 2

bahan utk blender
2 sudu rempah biji/ketumbar
6 ulas bawang merah
3 ulas bawang putih
2cm halia
1cm lengkuas
4 batang serai...hiris2 dulu

rempah serbuk
2 sudu serbuk jintan putih
3 sudu serbuk jintan manis
3 sudu serbuk lada putih
4 sudu asam jawa yg pekat
garam dan gula secukup rasa
1 cawan santan pekat+1cawan air


tumis bahan blender hingga wangi masukkan ayam yg digoreng tadi
masukkan kesemua serbuk rempah gaul rata
masukkan santan .kentang.garam .gula dan air asam jawa
tutop seketika sampai kentang empok
masukkan tomota dan lada hijau
biarkan kuah nya pekat dan hidangkan

selamat mencuba

ayam goreng mama'k...resepi dari kak Zuraini Alias..

10 ketul ayam
1 sd bsr serbuk cili
1 sd bsr serbuk kunyit
1 sd bsr jintan halus
1 sd bsr serbuk kari

bhn tumbuk
5 ulas bwg merah
2 inci halia

daun kari
tpg jagung

perap ayam dgn kesemua bhn kecuali tpg jagung dan daun kari..
masa nk goreng baru campurkan tpg jagung..goreng hingga msk keemasan....siapppp

sedap ni kalo makan gan nasi putih atau nasi goreng..

-daging dihiris nipis (direbus hingga empuk dan dicampur pewarna merah sedikit)
-bawnag merah, bwang putih, halia (tumisan)
-sos cili, sos tomato, sos tiram, cili kisar
-gula n garam
-bawnag besar n cili utk hiasan

1-panaskn minyak tumis bahan tumisan
2-masukkan cili kisar anggran 3sudu besar-biar wangi
3-masukkan sos, cili, sos tomato dan sos tiram biar hingga mendidih
4-masukkan air (ikut suka nak kuah pekat atau tak)
5-perasakan dgn gula dan garam
6-masukkan daging yg telah direbus biar dalm 3minit
7-masukkan bahan hiasan biar seminit.
Wani Khairul dging msk merah cm kt kdai 2 kn???bestnye..yummy2
Fiza Syamri a,ah yg selalu makan gan nasi goreng USA tu..

Chicken Chop, Loncong & Asam Gupal

Hi everyone! How was your day? I have uneasy feeling today,sigh.. Maybe because day after tomorrow I'll be back to Melaka. My mental and physical are not fully ready yet :( Tonight, we had chicken chop as our dinner and after that we had 2 desserts,yummmmyy~~ Here's the recipe!

Oriental Sauce

Fried Chicken

French Fries
1 whole chicken ( cut into big pieces- thigh, wing, drumstick)
Kentucky flour
5 cloves garlic (sliced)
2 onions (sliced)
1/2 bottle chili sauce
2 cans red beans
1 cup water
2 basils
A pinch of salt and pepper
French fries ( side dish)
1. Mix kentucky flour to the chicken. Spread well.
2. Deep fried the chicken in hot oil using large wok.
3. Meanwhile, saute garlic and onion until light brown.
4. Add in chilli sauce, red beans and water.
5. Add in basils and season with salt and pepper. Wait until it simmering.
6. Using the same oil that you fried chicken, now deep fried the fries.
7. Enjoy while still hot!
Squid Sambal


ayam panggang serba rasa

 seperti yang saya cerita pada entri sebelum ini...semalam saya macam terlebih rajin...yelah mood tu kadang-kadang ok, kadang-kadang tak ok...

lepas buat kek pisang...saya memanggang ayam pula...banyak idea-idea masakan saya, saya perolehi dari rancangan-rancangan masakan channel AFC dan LI...dan resepi ayam panggang serba rasa ni saya garapkan dari rancangan masakan 'best Wan' yang dihostkan oleh chef wan.

tapi saya tak dapat nak ingatkan seratus peratus bahan-bahan yang digunakan oleh chef wan....oleh itu saya main agak-agak je...

tapi hasilnya memang sedaplah pada saya dan anak-anak...

untuk resepi ini saya gunakan

6 potong paha ayam
2 helai daun pandan, simpulkan
3 batang serai, ketuk
1/2 cawan santan pekat

bahan blender;
15 biji bawang merah
5 biji bawang putih
1 inci halia
10 biji cili padi
5 biji cili merah
1 inci kunyit hidup
5 helai daun limau purut
3 biji air limau kasturi

1) panaskan 1/2 cawan minyak dan tumis daun pandan dan serai hingga wangi. masukkan bahan blender dan kacau hingga wangi. masukkan ayam dan kacau hingga rata. masukkan santan, garam, perisa dan gula. kacau lagi hingga kuah pekat (dalam 5 ke 10 minit).
2) keluarkan ayam dan ketepikan. masak kuah gravy hingga pekat. tambahkan garam, gula, asam limau dan perisa jika perlu (ikut selera anda). ketepikan.
3) susun ayam tadi dalam bekas pemanggang dan panggang dalam oven sehingga masak kedua-dua belah...lebih kurang sejam ke sejam setengah.
4) keluarkan dari oven dan hidang panas di sapukan dengan gravy sauce tadi....

acar ikan tenggiri

acar ikan tenggiri ni sebenarnya sama seperti masak ikan tenggiri bercuka cuma bezanya, untuk acar ini saya campurkan sedikit santan pekat. saya pernah makan hidangan ini dirumah seorang kawan ketika beliau buat kenduri arwah. daripada rasanya saya tahu lebih kurang akan bahannya.

untuk resepi ini saya gunakan beberapa keping ikan tenggiri. gaul dengan garam dan kunyit dan goreng seperti biasa.

lain-lain bahan terpulang kepada anda. saya guna timun dan carrot sahaja. anda boleh tambahkan kacang panjang, terung, tomato, bawang besar (potong wedges). cili hijau/merah belah dan sebagainya.

tumbuk halia, kunyit, cili padi, bawang merah dan bawang putih hingga lumat. tumis dengan sedikit minyak hingga wangi. masukkan beberapa sudu besar santan pekat dan sedikit biji sawi (jika ada/suka). tambah sedikit air jika perlu. biarkan mendidih. masukkan sayuran. biar mendidih sebentar. masukkan sedikit cuka, garam, gula dan perisa. akhir sekali masukkan ikan dan kacau sebentar.

siap dihidang. rasanya mesti sedikit masam, pedas dan lemak.
Anis Ad salam n slamat mowning sume...cadangnye menu tgh nnt 'ayam masak paprik'...sesape yg tahu resepi sbijik cm kat warung ala thai..,mintak la share....
ike puyyu pakk samah..tqvmah.....

Munie Yusoff bwg besar, bwag putih,bwg merah, halia,blender, cili giling,, tumis semua tu... tambah serai dan daun limau purut.. sos ikan/ sos tiram, kicap skit, yg lain secukup rasa.. saya blajar dari kwn yg asal org thai..
Munie Yusoff sayur tambahan tu ikut suka kitalah.. nak letak putik jgung, kcng pnjang, bunga kobis.
Mazni Mohamed nie versi sya..memula tumisserai dgn daun limau purut yg dicarik2...naik bau bru tumis bwg putih+merah....naik bau, msk 2 sudu cili boh, n sos tiram, biar kehap masuk sos cili n apa2 perasa n sos yg suka agak2 dkt nak msk msk kan cili api ketuk 2 biji n perah limau nipis....
Fishball atau bahan2 yong tau foo
Pes bawang putih dan pes bawang merah
Kiub ikan bilis Maggie
Bawang goreng
Daun sup
Garam secukupnya
Air secukupnya
Minyak untuk menumis
Sos cili thai ataupun cili padi merah hiris dan tuangkan kicap cair

1. Panaskan minyak dalam periuk. Tumis pes bawang putih dan bawang merah sehingga wangi.
2. Masukkan pula kiub ikan bilis Maggie secukupnya, hancurkan dan tumis sekejap. Kemudian tuangkan air secukupnya (ikut banyak mana sup yang anda hendak sediakan).
3. Masukkan garam dan bila kuah mendidih, masukkan bahan-bahan yong tau foo atau fishball/ crabmeat dan biarkan ia reneh selama 5 minit. Sup pun dah siap.
 Cara untuk menghidang
1. Masukkan bahan yong tau foo kedalam mangkuk, tuang sup yong tau foo.Taburkan dengan bawang goreng dan daun sup jika mahu.
2. Hidangkan bersama sos cili thai atau pun jika mahu cili padi merah yang telah dihiris dan tuangkan kicap cair.
Nota: Bila anda menumis pes bawang putih dan bawang merah, hendaklah tumis sehingga ia betul masak dan bangkit baunya baru supnya jadi powerrr!
Tahu Goreng
 Tahu memang sudah tidak asing lagi bagi kita terutama masyarakat melayudengan rasa yang lezat , mula dari digoreng biasa hingga diolah menjadi masakan jenis lainya. Tidak semua tahu diproses dengan bahan berbahaya tersebut, terbukti masih ada saja tahu yang dibuat secara alami.
Di balik kelezatannya, ternyata tahu menyimpan khasiat medis tersendiri. Sebuah studi oleh tim medis dari Kanada membuktikan bahwa tahu dapat menurunkan kolesterol jahat dalam tubuh. Selain menurunkan kolesterol, tahu juga terbukti dapat mencegah Cancer payudara.
4 keping tahu biasa
1 biji timun, dihiris nipis dan dimayang
100 g taugeh, buang ekor dan celur sekejap - aku ngan mat tk celur
1/2 biji sengkuang, kupas, hiris nipis dan dimayang
4 ulas bawang putih*
5 - 6 biji cili padi*
200 g kacang tanah*
3 - 4 camca besar gula melaka*
3 camca besar kicap pekat*
1 1/2 - 2 camca besar cuka makan @ jus asam jawa*
Sedikit air*(*bahan sos kacang)
Kacang tanah digoreng tanpa minyak hingga perang, buang kulit dan tumbuk separuh halus. Kisar cili padi dan bawang putih. Campurkan semua bahan2 sos kacang dan kacau hingga rata. Tambah sedikit air jika perlu, jangan terlalu cair atau pekat, sesuaikan rasa dan tambah gula@garam@asam jika perlu. Ketepikan.
Tauhu dilumur dengan sedikit garam, goreng terendam hingga kuning keemasan, jangan goreng lama sangat. Keluarkan dan tos.
Ambil sekeping tauhu goreng tadi. Potong kepada 9 bahagian (bergantung pada saiz tauhu masing2), alihkan ke dalam pinggan, tabur atas tauhu tadi dengan hirisan timun, sengkuang dan taugeh. Tuang sos kacang secukupnya dan hidangkan segera...Makan macam tu pun sedap!!!!!

Sambal Goreng Udang
8-9 batang cili kering (nak sambal lebih banyak dan lebih pedas, boleh lebihkan)
4-5 ulas bawang kecil
2 ulas bawang putih
Udang Segar (saiz mengikut keperluan)
Air asam-1/2 cawan hingga 1 cawan (agak-agak)
Minyak untuk menumis, gula, garam..
(Jika suka..tambah petai 1/2 mangkuk)
1 Labu Bawang Besar-Dihiris
 Let DO IT!:
1- Blend bawang putih, bawang merah dan cili kering (cili kering yg telah direndam didlm air)..kisar shingga hancur bersama-sama dengan air..
2- Panaskan minyak..bile sudah panas masukkan bahan yg telah dikisar.. 3-Tumis sehingga garing dan naik minyak..masukkan udang..gula dan garam..lebihkan gula utk mendapatkan rase yg lebih manis..
4- Jika suka masukkan petai..
5- Masukkan air asam..biarkan mengelegak dan masukkan bawang besar yang telah dihiris..tunggu hingga sambal naik minyak dan pekat..(kepekatan sambal ikut suka..)
 ALL THE BEST, Ady greatsword

Tom Yam merupakan sejenis sup yg terkenal bukan saja dari negara asalnya Thailand tetapi di seluruh dunia. Rasanya masam2 pedas dgn keharuman aroma dari herba yg digunakan seperti serai, daun limau purut, lengkuas, air limau nipis, sos ikan dan sebagainya.

Di negara Thai, sup tom yam ni selalu dimasak dgn menggunakan bahan utama seperti udang (tom yam kung), ayam (tom yum gai), ikan (tom yum pla), ataupun campuran makanan laut (mixed seafood) (tom yum talay atau tom yum po taek) dan cendawan – selalunya straw atau oyster mushrooms. Sup ini selalunya dihias dgn hirisan daun ketumbar.

Hah... yg atas tu adalah petikan dari Wikipedia yg telah saya terjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Melayu. Saya rasa ramai yg dah tau camner nak buat sup tom yam ni. So di sini saya sekedar nak berkongsi ttg sup tom yam yg saya buat semalam. Jom lihat resipi dan cuci mata ya...


1 ekor ayam, seberat 1.2 -1.3 kg (dibuang kulit & dipotong 12)
15 tangkai cili kering (direndam)
5 ulas bawang putih
1 cm halia ....... dikisar halus

8 batang cili padi (ditumbuk kasar)-boleh dikurangkan ikut citarasa
10 batang cili padi (utk dimasukkan sebiji-biji)
4 batang serai (dititik)
3 cm lengkuas (dititik)
1 biji bawang besar (dihiris kasar)
5-6 kiub pes tom yam
8 helai daun limau purut
sedikit daun ketumbar
1 biji limau nipis (diambil jusnya)
3 biji tomato (dipotong 2 atau 4)
1 – 1½ liter air (atau ikut citarasa)
1 sudu teh gula
garam secukup rasa (atau jika perlu)
80 -100 ml minyak utk menumis
1 batang lobak merah (potong ikut suka)
100 gm bunga kobis/broccoli
1 tin kecil button/straw mushroom (potong ikut suka)
1 tin jagung muda


Panaskan minyak dlm periuk. Masukkan campuran cili kering, bawang putih, halia, serai, lengkuas dan cili padi (tumbuk) dan tumis hingga garing dan wangi. Kalau perlu bubuh sedikit air.

Masukkkan kiub pes tom yam, (hancurkan sedikit agar mudah larut), potongan2 ayam dan 1½ liter air. Bubuh sekali daun limau purut. Masak sebentar (kira-kira 8-10 minit) sehingga ayam ½ masak. Kemudian masukkan bawang hiris, lobak merah, cendawan, bunga kobis, jagung muda dan cili padi. Masak lagi sehingga ayam empuk.

Kemudian, masukkan tomato, gula, garam (jika perlu) dan air limau nipis. Sesuaikan rasanya mengikut citarasa anda dan tambahlah apa yg perlu. Akhir sekali, masukkan daun ketumbar, kacau sebentar lalu matikan api.

Nota :
1) Saya tak gunakan sos nampla (ikan) krn penggunaan sos ikan ni optional.
2) Sukatan air yg diberi adalah sebagai garis pandu & jenis sayur-sayuran dan sukatannya tergantung kpd citarasa anda.
3) Anda boleh hidangkan sup ini dgn mee, kue teow atau pun bee hoon.

Pernah satu ketika dulu ada seorang pengunjung yg bertanyakan ttg resipi Ayam Penyek. Di sini saya ingin berkongsi satu resipi yg saya tukil dari Buku ALMAS. Diharap sesiapa yg berhajat bolehlah mencubanya. Pastu, bolehlah feedback ya!

(sumber resipi & foto : Pn Asmah Laili)

1½ kg peha ayam (kira-kira 6 keping, jangan buang kulitnya, cuci bersih dan toskan
2 - 3 liter air
3 batang serai, bahagian putihnya sahaja, dititik
3 hiris lengkuas, dititik
6 biji bawang putih, dihiris
1 sudu makan ketumbar, ditumbuk kasar
½ sudu makan jintan halus (jintan putih), ditumbuk kasar
1 ibu jari halia, dititik
4 helai daun salam
4 sudu makan rata, gula Tanjung
2 sudu makan rata garam

Masukkan semua bahan kedalam periuk, kecuali ayam. Gaul rata dan rasa. Jika kurang garam tambah sedikit lagi. Setelah puas dengan rasanya. barulah dimasukkan ayam. Tentukan airnya cukup setakat menutup ayam. Jerang periuk diatas dapur dengan api yang sederhana besarnya. Rebus ayam sehingga ¾ masak, selama 15 hingga 20 minit. Matikan api. Keluarkan kepingan ayam dan masukkan didalam tapisan. Biarkan sehingga ia benar-benar sejuk. Bersihkan ayam.

Sementara itu tapis air rebusan ayam. Air yang jernih diketepikan untuk membuat sup, tetapi bekas ketumbar dan jintan halus dilumurkan dengan kepingan ayam. Ayam
yang sudah direbus, sebaik-baiknya disimpan semalaman didalam peti sejuk dengan sedikit air rebusan. Goreng ayarn mi, pada keesokkan hari. Tetapi boleh juga digoreng
bila kepingan ayam sudah betul-betul sejuk. Goreng dengan banyak minyak, sehingga masak dan garing.

Setelah masak, dihentak sedikit dengan anak lesung. Sajikan segera dengan sup asam, nasi panas, serta tempe dan tauhu goreng, kangkung rebus, Sambal Kicap Lada Padi serta Sambal Lonteh.

Sumber: Hajah Rohanna Abu (Berita Harian 1 Sept 2006)

Bahan A (untuk merebus ayam)
1 ekor ayam (belah empat)
1 batang serai
2 ibu jari halia
5 ulas bawang putih
2 liter air
Garam secukup rasa


1. Ketuk halia, serai dan bawang putih kemudian masukkan ke dalam sebuah periuk yang besar, bersama air, garam dan ayam.

2. Rebus ayam selama 20 minit atau sampai ayam timbul.

3. Keluarkan ayam dari air rebusan dan segera pindahkan ke dalam bekas berisi air batu. Tujuannya ialah untuk menghentikan proses memasak supaya ayam tidak hancur apabila digoreng. Ketepikan air rebusan ayam untuk sup dan nasi.

4. Biarkan ayam dalam air batu selama beberapa minit kemudian toskan.TIP: Setelah anda keluarkan ayam daripada air rebusannya, segeralah masak nasi. Apabila nasi tanak, ayam pun sudah siap untuk digoreng dan dihidangkan bersama.

Bahan B (untuk goreng ayam)
2 biji telur
175 gram tepung beras
50 gram jintan biji (boleh ditambah jika suka) -cuci, toskan dan sangar jintan kemudian ditumbuk)
1 sudu teh serbuk kunyit
1 sudu teh rempah kari daging
1 sudu teh serbuk lada
Garam dan air secukupnya


1. Dalam sebuah bekas yang besar, satukan semua bahan yang kering.

2. Pecahkan telur ke dalam adunan bahan kering ini dan adun hingga rata.

3. Tuang air sedikit-sedikit ke dalam adunan sambil mengacaunya. Pastikan adunannya tidak terlalu pekat dan tidak cair.

4. Panaskan secukup minyak dalam kuali kemudian celup ayam ke dalam tepung dan gorenglah ayam hingga masak.

Oleh kerana ayam sudah direbus, anda tidak perlu menggorengnya terlalu lama agar ayam tidak keras. Setelah masak, ayam hendaklah diketuk atau dipenyetkan sebelum dihidangkan.

Bahan C (Untuk nasi dan sup)
1 kilo beras (cuci dan toskan)
150 gram mentega
1 cawan minyak masak
½ cawan minyak bijan
6 – 8 helai daun pandan
1 batang serai
5 ulas bawang putih (ketuk)
Garam secukup rasa
Air rebusan (stok) ayam secukupnya


1. Tapiskan secukup air rebusan ayam dan tuang ke dalam periuk nasi. Masukkan mentega, minyak, beras, daun pandan, serai, bawang putih dan garam. Kacau sedikit supaya bahan rata dan masaklah nasi seperti biasa.

2. Untuk supnya, tapis baki air rebusan ayam tadi, tuangkan ke dalam periuk dan campurkan dengan sebuku kiub stok ayam. Masak hingga kiub larut. Masukkan secukup hirisan daun sup, daun bawang dan bawang goreng. Hidangkan bersama ayam dan nasi.

Bahan D (untuk sambal dan ulam)
3 batang lada merah
3 biji lada padi
10 ulas bawang kecil
3 labu tomato
100 gram ikan bilis goreng
100 gram belacan
Secukup ulam (kacang botol, ulam raja, timun, pengaga)


1. Goreng lada padi, lada merah, bawang kecil dan belacan selama lima minit. Angkat dan toskan minyaknya kemudian tumbuk bersama ikan bili sgoreng hingga lumat.

2. Sajikan bersama ulam, nasi dan ayam penyet.


Jika suka anda boleh juga buat sambal belacan.
Anda boleh menggunakan 5 batang lada merah, 3 biji lada padi, ½ sudu teh gula melaka, 1 biji tomato dan 1 sentimeter belacan bakar. Satukan semua bahan ini dan tumbuk hingga lumat.

Bahan D (untuk sos hitam)
½ botol sos tiram
½ botol air
Segenggam gula paisr
Sedikit minyak bijan


1. Satukan semua bahan dalam periuk kecil dan masak hingga sos mendidih.
Posted By Bro Rozzan

Topic: Mushroom Soup HOme made
SEha Jarudi
1.5 liter air
450 mlm susu segar/rendh lemak
cendawan butang tin/segar (ikut nk bnyk mne)
dada ayam
kiub ayam
lada sulah
kentang 4bji
1 sudu tepung jagung

cara2nya :
1. rebus kentg then blend. cendawan pula blend kasar n hiris nipis.
2. masakkn air n dada ayam gingga mendidih..masukkan kiub ayam...
3. then,susu...kacau mesra.. masukkan kentg,cndawan,lada sulah,garam n gula... kacau mesra...lastly masukkan bancuhan tepung jagung n kacau sebati sampi sup tu mask n likat sdikit...

Topic: ayam percik
Intan Liana


ayam 1 ekor

bahan tumis dan blend

cili api 15 biji
cili kering 10 tangkai
bawang putih 4 ulas
bawang besar 4 biji
halia 1 inci
lengkuas 1 inci
jintan kasar dan halus setengah sudu
serai 7 ikat ( 6 ikat di ricik dan blend ) 1 ikat ketuk dan tumis bersama
santan bersama 1/2 biji kelapa saja...mesti cair.....
gula pasir 1 sudu
gula merah 1 sudu
asam keping 1 keping
2 btg serai yg direndam bersama minyak..utk digunakan sewaktu memanggang..

cara membuatnya:-

tumis bahan tumis hingga garing...kemudian masukkan santan dan masukkan ayam . Taburkan gula merah,gula pasir dan garam....biar secukup rasa ( pastikan ada rasa pedas manis )... Biarkan sehingga ayam masak...tapi jangan terlampau lembik ayamnya....asingkan ayam utk dipanggang...semasa memanggang sapukan kuah ayam yg dimasak tadi ke atas ayam...dan percikkan dengan minyak yg telah direndam bersama serai tadi...panggang kehitaman....makan bersama kuah tadi...

* masak ayam sehingga masak supaya masa utk memanggang sekejap saja..

selamat mencuba...

opic: Kuah yong tau foo sedap
Rohaida Rasdi

10 tangaki cili kering -(klu nak wat lebih tambahkan)
2 ulas bawag putih
air, minyak masak.
gula merah
bijan yang telah di goreng tanpa minyak.
sikit tepung jagung utk pekatkan kuah.
asam keping.


-kisar cilikering+ belacan+ bawang putih dan tumis dgn sedikit minyak hingga naik bau.
-masukkan air + gula merah+ garam +asam keping secukup rasa.
-masukkan tepung jagung utk memekat kan kuah ( di bancur dgn sedikit air)
-akhir sekali masukkan bijan yg telah digoreng tanpa mnyak.
-dah siap... boleh leh di jadikan pececah Yong Tau Foo yg telah siap di wat sup @ direbus.
selmat mencuba..
Topic: Satay Goreng Berkuah
Rafidah Hashim
Satay Goreng Berkuah

1kg daging lembu @ ayam
5 batang serai (dikisar halus)
1 1/2 sb biji ketumbar
1 1/2 sb jintan manis
1 sb serbuk kunyit
3/4 cwn gula
1/2 sb garam
2 sb minyak masak

Bersihkan daging @ ayam kemudian di potong dadu.
Campurkan semua bhn2 yg telah dikisar halus, gula, serbuk kunyit, garam dan minyak masak ke dlm daging @ ayam td.
Perap 1 mlm di tempat beku. Esoknya boleh digoreng dengan minyak yg sedikit.

Kuah Kacang
1/2 kg kacang tanah (digoreng tnpa minyak dan di mesin kasar)
4 ulas bwg kecil (dikisar halus)
3 ulas bwg putih (dikisar halus)
1 senduk cili mesin
1 mangkuk gula
3/4 mangkuk minyak
1 sb nestum
2 keping asam
garam secukup rasa

Tumiskan bhn2 dikisar dan cili hingga garing.
Masukkan air, asam keping dan kacau rata.
Masukkan kacang, gula, garam dan nestum, kacau rata kecilkan api dan masak hingga mendidih.

by Fauziah Abd Samad on Tuesday, 11 January 2011 at 21:02
aduh panjang lebar nama resipi kali ni. tak daapek den nak nolong. hari ni nadia yang buat. kjee tak pernah buat ayam panggang guna resipi yang kjee tengok dalam blog Dapur Tanpa Sempadan. Chef Mat Gebu punya resipilah, sapa lagi kan. Kjee percaya Nadia yang buat kerana simple sangat. mama dia sibuk buat skrip, anak didera ke dapur. apapun, memang sedaplah. kalah ayam mas. resipi ni sihat sangat sebab guna minyak zaiton. tapi kalau tak de, minyak apapun ok lah yer. kjee buat setengah ekor sebab ingatkan cukuplah untuk 3 beranak. hampeh. kene komplen ngan unclepali. ok kita tengok menunya.

½ ekor ayam
1½ sudu kecik rosemary kering (kalau dpt fresh mesti sedap)
2 sudu besar lada hitam biji (ditumbuk kasar)
2 sudu besar madu lebah
2 sudu besar minyak zaiton (minyak apapun boleh kot)
1 biji lemon
garam secukup rasa

Bersihkan ayam dan lap dengan tisu towel hingga kering. sagat kulit lemon (kuning jer. jangan sampai putih nanti pahit) dan ketepikan. perah air lemon ke dalam mangkuk. tumbuk kasar lada hitam, ramas rosemary dan campur. pastu masukkan dalam mangkuk yang ada jus lemon tadi. campurkan minyak, madu dan garam. lumurkan ke seluruh ayam yang telah dicucuk2 manja dengan garfu. akhir sekali lumurkan dengan kulit lemon. perapkan dalam peti ais selama sekurang-kurangnya dua jam. kalau lebih lama lagi elok. bungkus ayam yang telah diperap dalam alluminium foil kemas-kemas. pastu bakar dalam oven bersuhu 200 darjah selama sejam. selepas itu, keluarkan dari foil dan bakar lagi selama 10 minit supaya nampak garing. kalau ayam itu besar dan berisi, tambahlah masa memasak sehingga puas hati. makanlah dengan sos cili. hidangkan bersama baked potato skins. resipi baked potato skin dah lama ada dalam Notes. selamat mencuba.

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1 ekor ikan siakap (ikan merah/kerapu atau ikan bawal putih pun ok)
1/2 camca teh garam
1/2 camca teh tepung jagung
1/2 camca teh lada sulah
3 camca besar jus limau kasturi*
1 1/2 camca besar minyak masak*
1 1/2 camca teh gula*
1/2 camca teh garam*
5 - 10 biji cili padi, dihiris*
2 batang serai, dihiris halus*
1/2 kuntum bunga kantan, dihiris*
1 helai daun limau purut, dihiris halus*
1/2 inci halia muda. dihiris halus*
2 ulas bawang putih, dihiris halus*
1/2 camca teh tepung jagung*
1/2 camca teh serbuk pati ikan bilis atau 1/2 kiub pati ikan bilis maggi*.

Ikan dicuci bersih dan lumurkan dgn garam, tepung jagung dan serbuk lada sulah. Ketepikan sementara membuat sosnya.
Dalam satu bekas satukan kesemua bahan sos (yang bertanda '*") hingga sebati. Ketepikan.
Panaskan kukusan dan sediakan bekas tahan panas. Letak ikan tadi ke dalam bekas tahan panas dan tuangkan sosnya rata termasuk bahagian dalam belahan perutnya.
Kukus kurang lebih 10 minit bergantung pada saiz ikan atau apa bila daging ikan bertukar menjadi putih.

Makcik tambah kubis bunga & daun bawang sebagai penyeri majlis.

Lemon Rosemary Grilled Chicken
Resepi nama omputih tapi masaknye tak de le sesusah mana cuma nk tunggu masak je yg agak menguji ketabahan terutama ketabahan anak-anak. Kejap2 berlari ke dapur, tanya dah masak ke belum. Lepas masak nk make-up ayam pun tak sempat. Diorang dah mengeletek kat belakang. Nasib le sempat tangkap sebagai bukti penyiaran.

Rasa dia......mmmmm, yummy yummy.

Sumber : The Naked Chef (Jamie Oliver)
1 ekor ayam sederhana besar
2 biji lemon
3 ulas bawang putih
2 sudu besar olive oil
20 gm Rosemarry Kering. Saya guna 1 1/2 sudu teh rata measurement spoon. Kalau terlebih sangat nanti pahit
Garam 2 sudu kecik (sudu plastik kfc)

Lemon direbus sehingga empuk..agak agak lembut gitu dalam 15 minit. - Saya tak rebuspun, terus cucuk2 and sumbat dlm ayam b4 bakar
Tumbuk bawang putih dan rosemarry sehingga lumat
Gaulkan bahan yg ditumbuk tadi dengan olive oil dan campur sedikit garam.
Lemon tadi dicucuk cucuk dengan garfu..dan disumbat kedalam perut ayam
Lumurkan ayam tadi dengan bahan yg digaul tadi dan bakar didalam oven 180'c selama 1 jam atau sehingga masak.

Note: Seeloknya kalau nak makan dinner..buat petang atau pagi..perap semua dan bungkus dengan foil..pastu simpan peti sejuk..nak guna baru bakar..lagi sedap sebab herbs tu dah mesra dengan ayam

Sumber : The Naked Chef (Jamie Oliver)
1 ekor ayam sederhana besar
2 biji lemon
3 ulas bawang putih
2 sudu besar olive oil
20 gm Rosemarry Kering. Saya guna 1 1/2 sudu teh rata measurement spoon. Kalau terlebih sangat nanti pahit
Garam 2 sudu kecik (sudu plastik kfc)

Lemon direbus sehingga empuk..agak agak lembut gitu dalam 15 minit. - Saya tak rebuspun, terus cucuk2 and sumbat dlm ayam b4 bakar
Tumbuk bawang putih dan rosemarry sehingga lumat
Gaulkan bahan yg ditumbuk tadi dengan olive oil dan campur sedikit garam.
Lemon tadi dicucuk cucuk dengan garfu..dan disumbat kedalam perut ayam
Lumurkan ayam tadi dengan bahan yg digaul tadi dan bakar didalam oven 180'c selama 1 jam atau sehingga masak.

Note: Seeloknya kalau nak makan dinner..buat petang atau pagi..perap semua dan bungkus dengan foil..pastu simpan peti sejuk..nak guna baru bakar..lagi sedap sebab herbs tu dah mesra dengan ayam

AYAM MASAK HALIA ( Sumber : Chef Hanieliza )
500 gm ayam [potong kecil dan basuh bersih]
3 s/b sos tiram ]
1/2 cawan air ] bancuh
1 s/k tepung jagung ]
1 s/k serbuk lada hitam
1 pokok daun bawang [potong pendek] – tak de, saya tukar daun ketumbar
1 biji buah tomato [belah 4]
Bahan Hiris
5 cm halia
3 ulas bawang merah
3 ulas bawang putih
3 tangkai cili merah
1. Panaskan minyak dan tumiskan bahan hiris sehingga layu.
2. Masukkan ayam dan kacau rata. Masukkna sikit air dan tutup
3. Masakkan ayam sehingga lembut.
4. Masukkan bancuhan tepung jagung dan sos tiram. Biarkan sehingga pekat.
5. Masukkan tomato buah dan daun bawang. Kacau rata.
6. Hidangkan.

by Resepi Masakan Melayu
1 ekor ayam  (potong 4 atau 6 )
5 sudu makan pes bawang putih
5 sudu makan pes halia
5 sudu makan serbuk cili
2 sudu teh serbuk ketumbar
2 sudu teh serbuk jintan manis
1 biji telur
Tepung beras secukupnya
Garam secukup rasa
Minyak untuk menggoreng
Daun kari (digoreng sekejap dan ditabur pada ayam)

1. Gaul ayam bersama pes bawang putih, pes halia, serbuk ketumbar, serbuk ketumbar dan garam hingga sebati.
2. Perap selama 30 minit.
3. Kemudian salutkan ayam dengan telur dan tepung beras.
4. Panaskan minyak dan gorengkan ayam dalam deep fryer pada suhu 160 darjah celsius selama 15 minit atau hingga masak.
5. Angkat dan toskan. Taburkan dengan daun kari goreng  dan sedia untuk dihidangkan.

by Resepi Masakan Melayu
½ ekor ayam - dipotong kecil-kecil
4 ulas bawang merah - ditumbuk
2 ulas bawang putih - ditumbuk
1 labu bawang besar - dimayang
2 btg serai - dititik
2 biji buah tomato - dipotong 4
5 biji cili padi - ditumbuk
bunga kobis, kacang buncis/panjang, karot dan jagung muda
sedikit sos tomato, sos cili, sos tiram dan kicap manis
bahan-bahan perasa
1. Panaskan kuali. gorengkan ayam (agak-agak sampai masak, jangan terlalu garing).
2. Masukkan bawang merah, bawang putih dan cili yang ditumbuk, kacau sekejap.
3. Masukkan sos tomato, sos cili, sos tiram dan kicap manis Biarkan mendidih sekejap dan masukkan pula sedikit air. Masukkan serai, daun limau purut dan sayur-sayuran.
4. Apabila sudah mendidih, masukkan bawang besar dan buah tomato. Semasa menghidang, perahkan limau kasturi.

1 ekor ayam[potong sedang2 la,bersihkan letak garam n kunyit dan goreng]
10 biji cili kering
2 biji bawang besar
5 ulas bawang putih
1 inci halia
1 btg kulit kayu manis
1 1/2 cwn sos cili kimball
2 cwn air
2 biji bawang besar potong bulat

1; tumis bahan blender hingga naik minyak ,masukkan kulit kayu manis.
2;masukkan sos cili dan air
3;masukkan ayam yg digoreng tadi dan masukkan bawang besar
4;masak hingga agak pekat dan perasakan garam dan ajinomoto.


1 ekor ikan siakap dibersihkan dan digoreng
1 cwn sos cili kimball
air secukupnyer
sedikit nenas potong kecil2
sedikit bunga kobis
sedikit lobak merah
sedikit putik jagung
1 biji bawang besar dibelah 6
bawang putih 2 biji
sedikit minyak tuk menumis

hiasan;daun bawang n daun sup

1;panaskan minyak,ketuk bawang putih dan tumis hingga kekuningan
2;masukkan air, sos,bunga kobis,putik jagung,lobak merah, bawang n nenas,perasakan dgn garam n ajino
3;masak hingga kuah nyer pekat dan tuangkan keatas ikan tadi,dan hiaskan dgn daun bawang n daun sup
4; hidangkan...

by Fauziah Abd Samad on Saturday, 27 November 2010 at 23:51
Oka y kita cerita lak pasal resipi nk buat tahu bakar. Kjee mmg suka sgt tahu bakar...tapi sekarang dh tak suka cos dh terlalu exposed kat tahu bakar sejak meniaga selama 6 tahun. Malah bukan sahaja tahu bakar, tetapi Kjee dh hilang semangat nk makan laksa johor dan penang fried kwayteow sejak tahu membuatnya. Bukan nAk kata apa yg kjee buat tak sedap tapi bila dah mengadapnya hari2, maka yg sedap jadi tak  sedap. ntahlah. okay bercerita pasal tahu bakar ni. mula2 niaga dulu kjee buat sos hitam pekat yg guna base taucu manis. ala macam sos yong taufu tu. lama gak kjee guna resipi tu. resipi dia ala rasa cina. satu hari ada member datang gerai. dia bagi resipi ni untuk sos tahu bakar. semuanya ada lima item...sama sukatan. kalu guna cawan make sure yg sama. 1. cili kisar 2. gula. 3. air asam jawa. 4. petis. 5 air sejuk (paip). campur semua bahan ni pastu masak atas api sampai dia melegak dan pelankan api sampai dpt kepekatan yg kita nak. itu resipi asal member tu. tapi kjee ni buat sikit perubahan. sebenarnya, cili kering yg diblend tu boleh nak agak kepedasannya. so kjee hati2 bila mencampurnya. kekadang tiga suku cawan dan kekadang setengah jer. gitu juga ngan petis. kekadang setengah cawan jer takut masin sangat. pastu kjee ubah lagi. cili yg dah blend tu sebelum dicampurkan ke dalam periuk, kjee campur dulu ngan air sejuk satu cawan tadi dan kjee tapiskan ke dalam periuk. sebab? kan masa kita blend cili tadi walaupun nampak halus tapi tak halus sgt sebenarnya. so bila ditapis ngan air tadi kita akan dpt result sos yg halus dan cantik. ok bab sos dh siap. skrg camner nk buat tahu bakar. korang mesti ada tempat membakar. kalau ada oven toaster lagi baik. belilah tahu yg dah goreng. cina panggil taupok yg empat segi. pastu belah ikut tepi tapi jgn sampai putus. susun kat pembakar dan bakar. bila dh puas hati ngan kegaringannyer, korang angkat dan susunkan timun dan sengkuang yg telah diricik halus ditengah2 tahu tadi. tutup atau kepitkan tahu tu dan potong dua ke empat ker. pastu siram sos dan tabur kacang tanah yg telah ditumbuk halus. yg dh siap pun ada jual. selamat mencuba. kalo dh buat pls bagitau...jadi ke tidak yer. Oh ya lupa nk bagitau. sos ni bleh simpan lama dlm fridge dengan syarat korang x abiskan...juga diguna untuk sos sotong kangkung ker or rojak buah.

isi ayam-dpotong dadu dan dgaul ngn tpong gandum dan serbuk lada putih
daun bawang-asingkan bahagian bawah dan atas daun bawang
bawang besar-hiris kasar
halia muda-hiris kasar
segenggam cili kering
serbuk lada putih
sos tiram(lee kum kee)
kicap pekat
stok ayam
goreng isi ayam td
angkat dan ketepikan
panaskan minyak
bile dh minyak btul2 panas,tutupkan api
masokkan cili kering
gaul n on kan api semula
*untuk elakkan cili kering hangus
trus masokkan halia muda,bahagian bawah daun bawang,bawang besar,DAUN KARI dan ayam td-gaul sampai naik bau dgn api besar
kemudian boh sume bhn perasa dan air
renih ngn api yg besar
then,pas tutup api,trus boh daun bwg bahagian atas td kemudian tutup 5 minit
sedia dihidang...

Resepi sedap: Ayam goreng berempah

Bahan 1 (dikisar)
1 inci Halia
1 inci Kunyit hidup
3 batang serai
5 ulas bawang putih
Bahan 2
Beberapa ketul Ayam (4 atau 5)
½ sudu jintan manis
½ sudu jintan putih
1 sudu ketumbar
1 biji telur
daun kari

Cara-cara memasak
1. Perap ayam dengan semua bahan 1 yg dikisar dan bahan 2 selama 45 minit atau sejam.
2. dengan api yg sederhana, goreng ayam tadi sehingga garing
3. Sedia dihidang ! sedap dimakan ketika masih panas
p/s : jintan manis, jintan putih dan ketumbar boleh juga ditumbuk (mengikut selera masing2) dan boleh juga digantikn dgn rempah kari ayam..
Balas | Petikan
tumbuk halia dengan bawang putih, pastu perap kat ayam.. letak garam kunyit sikit.. pastu goreng. pun sodap jugak.. wangi.. (^_^) but kena hati2.. bahan perap tu senang hangit.. hee..
Balas | Petikan
kalo goreng dgn tepung adabi + telur, lg best..! masyuk cam kt KFC..hehe
Balas | Petikan
em.. saya dah buat tapi tak guna bawang putih..
saya blendkan daun kari. , gaulkan dgn serbuk kari dan sedikit sebuk cili .pasti ada kelainan. lain2 sama aje. Ingat daun kari kena banyak. Baru baunyer…. tak terhingga..ummmpph

cam sedap resepi nie.tapi klau isi banyak daun kari,lagi best.jadi rangup.eym…yummy

ayam tu kalau boleh kelar2 kan bru rmpah masuk kat dalam!!

cooks something simple today :)) TQVM to TA Rita Norlitah Hashral for d recipe.
cha twisted frm chic to TA cha C&P d recipe yea?

Bahan nya..
Ayam (potong kecil dn perap dgn lada sulah) - cha gunakan udang
Bawang merah yang kecil lagi elok.. (guna byk jugak bawang nie,ayam setengah ekor, bawang dlm 10ulas ditumbuk halus)
Serbuk kari ikan
Kicap pekat/ kicap biasa secukupnya
Daun kari secukupnya
Gula sedikit( lebih kurang 2 sudu makan gitu)


-ayam yg diperap tadi digoreng dulu biar masak jugak lah..tapi jngn terlalu kering..lalu ketepikan.(pakai lah non -stick pan supaya elok jer tak lekat kat kuali)

-minyak masak taruk dalam kuali dalam 5 sudu makan ,lalu tumis daun kari dulu,kemudian-tumis bawang merah yg ditumbuk tadi, tumis hingga bawang lembut dan kuning sedikit, dah layu bawang tuh, masokkan gula sikit je supaya tak lah pahit sangat ada balance kan rasa dia.

-kemudian masukkan ayam tadi,gaul dulu biar rata then taburkan serbuk kari secukup rasa....serbok kari masokkan macam tu jer..agak agak lah..takmo bnyk dan takmo sikit sngat..

-gorengkan sekejap kemudian masukkan kicap biasa /kicap pekat dan gaulkan rata.kalau masukkan kicap biasa kena agak agak sikit..jngn terlalu bnyk,rasa rasa lah pastu gaul gaul kejap..Bole jg klu nk tmbh garam dn perasa.

cha tumis as above method (biarkan sedikit pekat..then addkan udang kerana udang cepat masak )..

Hari ini saya masak briyani KAMBING..mbekkkmbekkkk


Bahan nya
3 kilo beras briyani (beli jenis yg baik di rendam 1/2 jam dan ditoskan buang air nya)

1 tin kecil minyak sapi 500gram (Ta tak guna semua, Ta guna 1/2 then campor ngan canola oil) health reasons.

2 biji bawang besar dihiris

rempah tumis 4 beradik (kayu manis 1 btng, bunga cengkih 6 biji, pelaga 6 biji, lawang 2 biji

1 tin susu cair

paste bawang besar kisar, halia kisar dan bawang putih kisar..

daun pandan

Cara nya
Panaskan periuk, taruk minyak sapi, tumis bawang hiris, rempah 4 beradik, lalu masokkan sekali 1 sendok kecil halia kisar,

1 sedok kecil bawang besar kisar, 1 sendok kecik bawang putihl kisar.

Tumis semua biar sebati, kemudian taruk air dan daun pandan 1 ikat. Dah didih, masokkan susu cair, beras, garam daun ketumbar dan daun pudina yg sudah dipetik petik. Masak biar nasi tanak,NASI DAH MASAK... lastly masokkan saffron (koma koma) yg sudah direndam dngan sedikit air mawar. saffron ngan air mawar nie masokkan buat kan satu putaran jer..pastu biarkan nasi tu tanak dulu..jangan dikacau dulu ye NANTI NASI HANCUR TAK CANTIK!! dah lama sikit nasi tu kerok dari tepi dan tolak ketengah..(KALO TAKDE SAFFRON BLEH SAJE LETAK PEWARNA KUNING ATAU OREN SEDIKIT JER)



Bahan nya
untuk 1 kilo daging

1 kilo daging kambing atau lembu
4 biji bawang besar dihiris halus dan digoreng seperti bawang goreng dan ketepikan.
4 batang lada hijau dikisar halus
4 batang lada merah dikisar halus
5 biji tomato dipotong kecil
2 sudu besar bawang besar kisar(paste)
1 sudu besar bawang putih kisar(paste)
1 sudu besar halia kisar(paste)
2 sudu besar rempah briyani
2 genggam badam dikisar
2 genggam gajus di sangrai atau digoreng
3 sudu besar tairu(yogurt)
secekak daun ketumbar
garam dan perasa
minyak untuk menumis

Cara nya
Dalam kuali, panaskan minyak, tumis bawang hiris lalu ketepikan..
Tumis semua bahan yng dikisar. Biarkan sebentar, kemudian masokkan buah tomato.Masokkan pula bawang yg dah digoreng, tairu,rempah briyani,badam kisar dan gajus.
Masokkan kan pula daging dan kacau hingga rata.Masok garam, perasa dan daun ketumbar.Masak hingga daging empuk dan kuah menjadi pekat...kemudian bolehlah di dam kan ke nasi briyani tadi...
sekali lg.. hb suruh tempek respi kt sini lauk pebret dia.. akk okeh je lah.. (isteri yg taat la katakan.heheh)

ra Azmira Syah
as-salam...rakan nk tnya pada sesapa yg tahu resepi nk buat udang butter,jika ada yg tahu minta share resepi ye thnks....jasa mu di kenang... (^^,)
5 hours ago • Like •

Jamilah Jamal likes this.

Ezza Aziz udang gaul ngan tepung jagung/ubi...goreng 1/2 masak. panaskan butter..tumis bawang puith cincang@tumbuk...cili padi cincang/hiris..daun kari....dah garing masukkan telur yg dipukul hingga sikir kembang...kacau laju2...& masukkan udang...gaul rata & toskan butter tadi...

Bahan-bahan ( 6 ekor )
3 biji bawang merah, 3 ulas bawang putih, segenggam cili api, segenggam ikan bilis - kesemuanya ditumbuk.
2 biji tomato - dicincang halus
1/2 biji limau nipis diambil jusnya @ 1/2 sudu teh asam jawa
garam & gula secukup rasa
1. gaul rata semua bahan2. suaikn rasanya. sumbatkan ke dalam perut ikan hingga padat. ikat perut ikan dgn benang kapas supaya sambal x terkeluar.
2. goreng dalam minyak yg sedikit hingga masak. halakan belahan ikan ke tepi kuali supaya sambal x kelur semasa digoreng
3. siap.. bleh mkn..!

ra Azmira Syah
as-salam...rakan nk tnya pada sesapa yg tahu resepi nk buat udang butter,jika ada yg tahu minta share resepi ye thnks....jasa mu di kenang... (^^,)
5 hours ago • Like •

Ezza Aziz udang gaul ngan tepung jagung/ubi...goreng 1/2 masak. panaskan butter..tumis bawang puith cincang@tumbuk...cili padi cincang/hiris..daun kari....dah garing masukkan telur yg dipukul hingga sikir kembang...kacau laju2...& masukkan udang...gaul rata & toskan butter tadi...

ayam masak halia.puan2 mesti tahu masak n kan tapi amy saje jew letak resepinya kat cni ye.
1keping dada ayam
1/2 bj bawang merah*
4 ulsa bawang putih*
halia 3 inci dihiris halus2...
cili padi sedikit.kalo nak pedas boleh tambah ye..*
2sdb sos tiram.
air sedikit
bawang besar
daun bawang
daun sup
tumbuk bahan2 yg bertanda.selepas tu tumis ye hingga naik bau..dah tu masukkan dada ayam tadi...gaul seketika dan masukkan sedikit air.tutup kuali dan biarkan dalam beberapa minit tuk bg masak ayam tu.bila dah ok bolehlah masukkan sos tiram,garam n ajinamoto.gaul selepas tu bolehlah masukkan bahan hiasan.bawang besar,daun sup dan daun bawang sedikit.siap.boleh makan...masakan yg simple tapi sedap....

recipe dari fren FB.tqvm pd PN Rita Norlitah Hashral krn share dis's so simple & mmg sesuai utk pn2 yg bekerja dan x suka spend bnyk masa kat kitchen




udang fav n.hehehe
resepi by nurzuhaila.tqvm bab dah share resepi n...
-udang +serbuk kunyit n garam pas2 grg.....
-grg daun kari n cili padi...pas2+ngan udang td...
-sy letak telur sebiji tp ada org letak merah telur sy + susu cair+garam sket.....
-pas2 grg telur ngan mentega(sy bubuh lebih kurang 5-6 sudu bsr)kacau sedikit demi sdikit....ada org ltk 1sb bsr mentega....
-bila telur dh garing,tapiskantelur td cz byk minyak.....
-pas2 gaulkan telur td ngan udang yg dh grgr td....
-hidangkan mkn ngan nasi panas.
Ieka Aleeya
nk tnya pada kwn2 kt KR ni blh tk bg resepi untk buat perap dgng,ayam,ikn dll sbb hr ahad ni nk buat BBQ kt rmh emk ngn tau lh bahan2 nk buat perap BBQ tu....plzzzzz
5 hours ago • Like •
Nanie Erney Perap...biasa ja..
Serbuk kunyit,bwg putih/kisar,gula mau byk,garam,minyak ckit ja...klu perap lma lg bgus n sdp 2,3ari perap
5 hours ago • Like
Seri Yazi klo gne madu x sdp ke?
Nanie Erney Buli jua tem bkar sapu madu..

Inna Azlina bawag puth, halia, kunyit, jintan manis, ketumbar, gula melaka/nise(bhs kelate) dan garam.........semua di blend
Marizah Miza try cara tgk chef wan dah try...mmg sedappp....sos tomato...mustard...serbuk cili...myk masak...bawang merah dicincang...garam...gula...cuka sket...perap semalaman...air dari perapan tu...amik...masak jap smpai mendidih...wat siram msa bakar ayam

Laily Saleh versi belasah saye...bawang putih,bawang merah,halia,oyster sos, rempah kari skit, gula, garam, kasi blend sume...jgn lupe lada hitam...buh air coke tau...perap semalaman.....bile buh air coke..rasa dia lain tau...sedap...
20 minutes ago • Like

2. Satay dan Kuah Satay

Satay. Kjee dibesarkan dengan satay. Arwah mak kata, Kjee dilahirkan dalam dulang satay. Yelah tu. Kononnya masa dia dah sarat sangat mengandungkan Kjee, dia masih bantu ayah dia cucuk satay. Tup2 masa tengah cucuk satay, sakit nak beranak. Pastu masuk dlm rumah terus Kjee keluar.

Ya ker...jadi taklah beranak dalam dulang satay...Merepeklah mak.. risau kjee dengar. Datuk Kjee dulu jual satay. Memang famous satu Malaya.  Di Kuala Lumpur, sebut Majid Satay semua kenal. Satay dia sedap sangat.

Dulu masa kecik, datuk Kjee meniaga di Campbell Road. Setelah dia tiada, kami membuka Restoren Satay Anika di Bukit Bintang Plaza.. Sekarang Satay Anika dan datuk dah tak de. Tapi sepupu2 Kjee ramai yg masih jual satay ikut resipi datuk kita. Nasib baiklah dia orang jual. Kalau tidak, susahnya Kjee sebab susah nak selera makan satay orang lain...hehehe maaf ya.

Hari ni Kjee nak bagi resipi Raja Satay Malaysia iaitu Majid Satay.Rahsia buat satay ialah kita mesti gunakan daging batang pinang. Memanglah mahal sikit tapi kalau daging biase, keras. Resipi yang ada pada Kjee guna kati so Kjee tukar ke kilo ya. Kita tengok resipi dia.

Bahan2nya: (SATAY)

600 gram daging batang pinang.
1 cawan gula pasir
2 batang serai
2 sudu besar kacang tanah
1 sudu besar garam
1 sudu besar serbuk kunyit


Daging dibersih2kan urat2 dan lemaknya dan dihiris halus dalam sebesar ibu jari. Kacang tanah disangai tanpa minyak dan dibuang kulitnya. Ricik serai dan tumbuk halus, asingkan dan tumbuk pulak kacang tanah. Masukkan dalam besen semua bahan seperti  gula, garam, kunyit serbuk dan serai serta kacang tumbuk tadi. Gaul rata. Pastu masukkan daging tadi dan gaul sampai rata betul2. Perap selama dua jam. Jangan bubuh sebab air daging tu akan keluar setelah diperap hampir dua jam. Pastu, cucuklah guna lidi daun kelapa atau sekarang orang pakai lidi buluh. Kemudian bakarlah atas tempat bakar yang guna arang. Amik sebatang serai diketuk2 sikit, Kemudian bubuh sikit minyak dalam mangkuk campur air sesudu. Pastu celupkan serai dalam minyak dan tepuk atas satay masa bakar. Balik2kan. Hati2 jangan terbakar lidinya atau daging hangus. Satay ayam pun sama caranya. Beli isi dada ayam.


Ada macam2 versi kuah sate. Keluarga sebelah bapak Kjee kat Melaka pun jual sate. Dia orang bubuh biskut Marie sebab nak bagi kuah dia pekat. Ntahlah Kjee dah lupa rasenyer. Tapi kuah sate Majid Satay guna kacang tanah 100% so very de ori. Pastu kita orang guna gula Melaka bukan gula putih. Gula melaka lagi lemak kata arwah mak. Resipi untuk kuah ialah:


600 gm kacang tanah yang telah disangai
5 biji bawang besar
½ cawan cili kering dikisar
1 cawan gula melaka
1 cawan minyak
garam secukup rasa


Kacang tanah mestilah cukup masak sewaktu disangai. Dibuang kulit, disejukkan dan direndam seketika sebelum dikisar. Ketika kisar dalam blender, guna air secukupnya untuk gerakkan blender. Jangan terlalu banyak sangat air.

Bawang besar di mayang. Kemudian panaskan periuk guna 1 cawan minyak dan tumislah bawang hingga wangi. Kemudian masukkan cili kering kisar dan goreng sampai naik minyak. Apabila sudah naik minyak, masukkan kacang yang telah diblend. Air juga dimasukkan sebenyak kira2 dua cawan. Bila sudaha melegak, masukkan gula melaka dan garam.

Kuah satay akan menjadi pekat apabila ia sudah sejuk. Jadi, pandai2lah nak agak banyak mana air yang hendak diletak.

Selain makan satay dengan kuah dan nasi himpit, sedap jugak kalau dihiris bawang, cili api bubuh kicap dan dimakan bersama satay. Hmmm sedapnya. Selain itu, hirisan timun juga suatu kemestian. Selamat mencuba.
Posted by Kjee at 3/21/2011 10:08:00
Ayam Masak Merah Madu

Ayam Masak Merah Madu
Resepi : DayangJack@DapurKu SaYang

bahan-bahan :
1 ekor ayam (dipotong ikut suka dan digoreng hingga 3/4 masak)
rempah 4 sekawan (buah pelaga, kayu manis, bunga lawang dan cengkih)
cili giling secukupnya
sos cili secukupnya
2 keping asam gelugur
4-5 sudu besar madu (dibancuh dengan sedikit air)
1 labu bawang besar (dihiris bulat)
1 sudu besar sos tiram
bahan-bahan kisar :
10 biji bawang merah
4 ulas bawang putih
1 inci halia
1 inci lengkuas
2 batang serai
Cara-cara :
1. Panaskan minyak secukupnya di dalam kuali atau periuk. Tumis bahan-bahan kisar dan rempah 4 sekawan hingga wangi. Kemudian masukkan cili giling dan tumis lagi hingga pecah minyak.
2. Masukkan sos tiram dan sos cili secukupnya. Kacau rata-rata. Kemudian masukkan air secukupnya. Kacau lagi hingga mendidih.
3. Masukkan ayam, bancuhan madu, garam dan asam gelugur. Gaulkan sebati. Akhir sekali masukkan bawang besar.
4. Setelah ayam masak, tutupkan api. Angkat dan hidangkan bersama nasi putih atau nasi tomato.